The Third Carter Center Forum on U.S.-China Relations
Beijing, P. R. China
September 4, 2014
Thirty-five years ago, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping of China normalized U.S.-China relations. This bold decision forever changed China, the United States, and the world. The Carter Center’s China Program is dedicated to preserving this legacy and advancing U.S.-China relations by building cooperation between China and the United States on key issues of global importance.
In 2009, the Chinese People’s Association of Friendship for Foreign Countries (CPAFFC) and The Carter Center (TCC) organized joint activities to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the normalization of U.S.-China relations in Beijing and Atlanta, respectively. Then-Vice President Xi Jinping spoke at the Beijing reception, and praised President Carter for his instrumental role in promoting better understanding between the American and the Chinese peoples, and for working to advance bilateral relations between the two nations.
In December 2012, at the invitation of CPAFFC, President Carter and a TCC delegation visited China after the historic 18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The newly anointed CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping met President Carter for the fourth time, and stated that China would like to see TCC dedicate more resources towards improving U.S.-China relations. During this trip, the First Carter Center Forum on U.S.-China Relations was held at the Beijing Hotel. In addition to President Carter, notable attendees of the 2012 Forum included:
|Mr. Xu Kuangdi||Former Vice President of the CPPCC, Former Mayor of Shanghai|
|Madam Li Xiaolin||President of CPAFFC|
|Amb. Gary Locke||American Ambassador to China|
|Tung Chee-Hwa||Vice President of CPPCC, Former Chief Executive of Hong Kong SAR|
|Mr. Yang Jiechi||China’s Foreign Minister at the time|
Then, in November 2013, TCC and CPAFFC jointly organized the second Carter Center Forum on U.S.-China Relations in Atlanta, Georgia. President Carter, Madam Li Xiaolin and the Chinese Ambassador to the U.S., Mr. Cui Tiankai, delivered keynote speeches. The forum enjoyed extensive media coverage by both Chinese and American media outlets. Many of those who had played pivotal roles in the normalization process and renowned scholars in the field participated in the forum. Notable participants included :
|Mr. Daniel Russel||U.S. Assistant Secretary for Asia-Pacific Affairs|
|Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski||Former National Security Council Advisor|
|Ms. Charlene Bashefsky||Former U.S. Trade Representative|
|Dr. Yan Xuetong||Former Dean of the School of International Relations, Tsinghua University|
|Dr. Orville Schell||Arthur Ross Director of the Center on U.S.-China Relations of the Asia Society|
|Dr. Yuan Peng||Vice President of the China Institute of Contemporary International Relations|
This forum has helped TCC to focus on its initiative to advance U.S.-China relations in two key areas: advancing U.S.-China cooperation in other nations, particularly nations that are undergoing major transformation or experiencing internal turmoil, as well as nurturing young Chinese and American scholars to develop expertise in this area. It is the belief of the forum participants that TCC’s extensive programming in these concentrations and its presence in these countries will help to anchor this initiative. They also believe that the U.S. and China, as the two largest economies in the world, should work together to wage peace and sustain development in these countries. All forum attendees agree that this bilateral collaboration will certainly enhance and create mutual trust between Washington and Beijing, whose absence has become a major source of disruption and distraction for such a critical relationship.
This year marks the 35th anniversary of the normalization of U.S.-China relations. President Carter will visit China in early September to attend a series of activities arranged to celebrate this momentous occasion. In cooperation with the Harvard Kennedy School’s Ash Center, the Tomorrow Foundation and the Sun Culture Foundation, TCC, International Data Group and CPAFFC will convene the third Carter Center Forum on U.S.-China relations on September 4th at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. The one-day forum will be followed by the official celebration of the normalization anniversary. Either President Xi Jinping or Premier Li Keqiang is expected to attend the reception and offer remarks; President Carter will give the keynote speech at the forum. The four panels of the Forum will focus on U.S.-China interaction and cooperation in the areas of investment and economics, climate control and energy, collaboration in transitional countries, and philanthropic endeavors.
Confirmed Panelists and Distinguished Guests
Terrence B. Adamson
Mr. Adamson is the chief legal officer of the National Geographic Society, overseeing law, business and governmental affairs. He reports to Gary Knell, president and CEO, to whom he also serves as a special adviser. Adamson serves as corporate secretary of National Geographic, involved in the governance of the Society. Adamson has been a trustee of the Asia Foundation since 1985 and served as chairman of the board of trustees of the Asia Foundation for more than five years. He has served as a member of the board of trustees and executive committee of the Carter Center in Atlanta since its inception. By appointment of Presidents George H.W. Bush and William J. Clinton, and three Senate confirmations, he served on the board of directors of the State Justice Institute from 1990 to 2010. Adamson holds a B.A. in history from Emory University and a law degree with honors from Emory University. He was named as one of Emory University’s 175 History Makers in December 2011.
Ambassador Baucus is the current U.S. Ambassador to China. He formerly served as the senior U.S. Senator from Montana from 1978 to 2013, becoming the longest serving senator from Montana. As chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance, Ambassador Baucus led the passage and enactment of free trade agreements with 11 countries, and worked to increase U.S. exports by knocking down trade barriers. He has led business leaders on trade missions abroad to many countries including China. During his tenure on the Senate Committee on Finance, Ambassador Baucus was deeply involved in orchestrating congressional approval of permanent normal trade relations with China in 2000 and in facilitating China’s entrance into the World Trade Organization in 2001. Ambassador Baucus earned a bachelor’s degree and law degree from Stanford University.
Professor Bottelier is a former nonresident scholar in Carnegie Endowment for International Peace’s International Economics Program and senior adjunct professor of China studies at the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), the Johns Hopkins University. His work currently focuses on China’s economic reform and development. He also taught at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government (2001–2003) and Georgetown University (2004). Bottelier has authored many articles and book chapters on China’s economy. He also serves as an adviser on China to the Conference Board, an independent membership organization that conducts and disseminates research on management and the marketplace. He is fluent in five languages. He received his B.A. and M.A. from the University of Amsterdam, and has been a guest scholar at M.I.T.
Mr. Cao is the Chairman, Chief Executive and Founder of the Fuyao Glass Industry Group Co., Ltd. He is also one of China’s most influential philanthropists whose charitable donations to date exceed US$1 billion, including a US$64 million donation for the construction of a new library in Fuzhou. Hailing from Fuqing, Fujian Province, Cao began his career as an entrepreneur in 1983 when the state owned factory in which he worked underwent losses and, due to the economic reforms being introduced by Deng Xiaoping at the time, he was able to take control of the plant. He converted production in the factory to automobile glass and the factory quickly began to return a profit. In 1987 Cao founded the company Fuyao Glass and initially worked for a large number of car manufacturers producing a wide range of glasses. In 2007 General Motors named this company the ‘Supplier of the Year.’ Cao is a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) of Fujian Province and also the chairman of the China Auto Glass Association.
President Jimmy Carter
President Carter is the 39th president of the United States of America. He began a long career in politics when he was elected to the Georgia State Senate in 1962. In 1971, he became the 76th governor of Georgia. On Dec. 12, 1974, he announced his candidacy for president of the United States. He won his party’s nomination on the first ballot at the 1976 Democratic National Convention and was elected president on Nov. 2, 1976. Jimmy Carter served as president from Jan. 20, 1977 to Jan. 20, 1981. Significant foreign policy accomplishments of his administration included the Panama Canal treaties, the Camp David Accords, the treaty of peace between Egypt and Israel, the SALT II treaty with the Soviet Union, and the establishment of U.S. diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. In 1982, he became University Distinguished Professor at Emory University in Atlanta, Ga., and founded The Carter Center. He attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology, and received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1946.
Dr. Chen is a professor of finance at Yale’s School of Management. He is a noted expert on finance theory, securities valuation, emerging markets, and China’s economy and capital markets. Dr. Chen started his career by publishing research papers in top economics and finance journals on topics related to financial markets and theories of asset pricing. Around 2001, Dr. Chen began to expand his research focus by going beyond mature markets and investigating market development and institution-building issues in the context of China’s transition process and other emerging markets. He received a B.S. from China’s Central-South University of Technology, his M.S. from the Changsha Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. from Yale University.
Dr. Cunningham is an Assistant Professor in Boston University’s Department of Geography and Environment and the Director of the Harvard Kennedy School Asia Energy and Sustainability Initiative. Prof. Cunningham served as the program officer of the China Public Policy Program at the Harvard Kennedy School, which has trained over 1,000 senior government officials in China since 1999. He was selected as a Fulbright Fellow to China, during which time he conducted his doctoral fieldwork as a visiting fellow at Tsinghua University. He is fluent in Mandarin and Italian, and focuses his academic work on energy markets, energy policy, and the political economy of development. Professor Cunningham received a B.S. from Georgetown University, an M.A. from Harvard University and his Ph.D. from M.I.T.
Mr. Fu is the chairman of Sinopec, a position he has held since April 2011, when he also assumed the government position of party secretary. He has previously served as President, Chairman and CEO of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation Ltd. (CNOOC) and chairman of the joint management committee which oversaw joint ventures between foreign oil companies such as Amoco, Chevron, Texaco, Phillips, Shell and Agip. Born in 1951, Mr. Fu graduated from China’s Northeastern University with a degree Geology. He obtained a master’s degree in petroleum engineering from University of Southern California, and later studied at Beijing’s Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business.
Dr. Jia is the associate dean of the School of International Studies at Peking University, a position he has held since 1999. He has previously served as a visiting professor at the University of Vienna, University of Sydney, Cornell University and University of Vermont. He is a research fellow at the Institute of Global Conflict and Cooperation, University of California and at the Brookings Institute in Washington, D.C. He is also a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the CPPCC National Committee, a member of the Standing Committee of the China Democratic League and a guest supervisor of the Ministry of Supervision. He has published extensively on Sino-US relations, relations between the Chinese mainland and Taiwan, Chinese foreign policy and Chinese domestic politics. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1988.
Robert A. Kapp
Dr. Kapp has been president of Robert A. Kapp and Associates, a business consulting firm, since 2004. He also serves as senior China advisor to international law firm K&L Gates. Kapp is chair of the China Committee of the Pacific Council on International Policy, and he is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. Earlier in his career, Kapp served on the China faculties of Rice University and the University of Washington and headed two organizations, the Washington State China Relations Council and the Washington Council on International Trade. For ten years, he was the president of the U.S.-China Business Council. He holds a doctorate in modern Chinese history from Yale University.
Ms. Knup is the Ford Foundation’s representative in China, and was most recently the Chief Representative in China for Pearson PLC, an education and media company. She has also served as chief representative and managing director of Kamsky Associates, Inc. (KAI), a business strategy and investment advisory firm. From 1998 through June 2001, Ms. Knup was the American co-director of the Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, and prior to that she worked at the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. Ms. Knup served on the Board of Governors of the American Chamber of Commerce – China from 2006-2008. Fluent in Mandarin, she has a master’s degree from the University of Michigan’s Center for Chinese Studies and a bachelor’s degree in political science from Middlebury College.
Mr. Kroeber is head of research of Gavekal Dragonomics, an independent global economic research firm, and editor of its journal China Economic Quarterly. He is a non-resident senior fellow of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center, where his research focuses on China’s engagement with global economic institutions. Before joining Gavekal Dragonomics, Mr. Kroeber worked for fifteen years as a financial journalist and economic analyst in China, Taiwan and India. He has written for Foreign Policy, the Economist, the Far Eastern Economic Review, Fortune and Wired and is a contributor to the opinion pages of the Financial Times, Wall Street Journal and Washington Post. He is a member of the National Committee on United States-China Relations, the Fernand Braudel Institute of International Economics, and a board member of the Research Center for Chinese Politics and Business at Indiana University.
Mr. Li is Deputy Director of the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). He helped organise and implement the first CDM project in China, and was also responsible for architecting the wind and solar power plan within the Tenth Five-year Plan. He is also the director of the ERI’s academic committee, a technical consultant to the government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, a deputy board director of the China Renewable Energy Academy and China Biogas Academy, a board member of the International Wind Council, and the vice chairman of the 21st Century International Renewable Energy Policy Committee. He received his Bachelor’s degree from the Power Engineering Department of Shandong Mining Institute.
Ms. Li is president of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC), a position she held since 2010. She joined the CPAFFC in 1975, and has previously served as its vice president, chief of the Division of U.S. Affairs, deputy director general, and director general of the department of American and Oceanian Affairs. From 1990 to 1992, she was the first secretary of the Chinese Embassy in the United States. In 2003, Li was elected to the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. She earned her B.A. in English at Wuhan University and her M.A. at the University of California in Los Angeles.
Dr. Liu is the director of the China Program and has been a member of numerous Carter Center missions to monitor Chinese village, township, and county people’s congress deputy elections since 1997. Dr. Liu is the founder and editor of the China elections and governance website www.chinaelections.org. Dr. Liu is an adjunct professor of political science at Emory University and associate director of the China Research Center in Atlanta. He earned his bachelor’s degree in English literature from Xi’an Foreign Languages Institute, master’s degree in recent American history from the University of Hawaii, and doctorate in American political and diplomatic history from Emory University.
Ambassador Lyman is the former U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria (1986–89) and South Africa (1992–95) and former Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (1996–98). He is a member of the American Academy of Diplomacy and the Aspen Institute, and he is Adjunct Senior Fellow for Africa Policy Studies with the Council on Foreign Relations. Lyman holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. In January, 2011, Lyman, who previously served the U.S. government in mediation talks between the north and south of Sudan, visited Sudan for the independence referendum of South Sudan.
Mr. Ma is the CEO of Alibaba Group, the Chinese leader in e-commerce. In 1999, with $60,000 in startup capital, he launched Alibaba.com. The company’s rapid growth allowed him to raise $25 million dollars from investors such as Goldman Sachs and Japanese Internet entrepreneur Masayoshi Son. In 2003, Mr. Ma launched online auction site Taobao.com, which quickly emerged as a serious rival to eBay. Alibaba Group is currently preparing for a global IPO, with many analysts predicting it will be the largest U.S. IPO in history. Mr. Ma is a graduate of the Hangzhou Teachers’ Institute.
Stephen A. Orlins
Mr. Orlins is the president of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, a position he has held since 2005. He previously served as the managing director of Carlyle Asia, one of Asia’s largest private equity funds. He has also served as senior advisor on Asian markets to AEA Investors, a New York based leveraged buyout firm, a managing director at Lehman Brothers, and President of Lehman Brothers Asia. From 1976 to 1979, Mr. Orlins served in the Office of the Legal Advisor of the United States Department of State, first in the Office of the Assistant Legal Advisor for Political-Military Affairs and then for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. While in that office, he was a member of the legal team that helped establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. He received his B.A. magna cum laude from Harvard College, and his law degree from Harvard Law School.
Mary Ann Peters
Ambassador Peters is the new President and Chief Executive Officer of The Carter Center. She has previously served as the U.S. Ambassador to Bangladesh and the fourth provost of the United States Naval War College. Ambassador Peters spent more than 30 years as a career diplomat with the U.S. State Department. She received the Presidential Meritorious Service Award in 2003 for her work in Bangladesh, leading the mission’s efforts in support of key U.S. foreign policy goals. Ambassador Peters is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Women in International Security and is fluent in six foreign languages. She received her B.A. from Santa Clara University and her Master’s of International Studies from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.
Dr. Qin is a glaciologist and climatologist and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and an Academician of the Third World Academy of Sciences. Dr. Qin is the former Administrator of the China Meteorological Administration and the former Permanent Representative of China with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). He has been involved in research on cryosphere and global changes for decades, and has participated in or led multiple scientific expeditions and relevant studies in Antarctic, Arctic, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Western China, having achieved a large number of innovative research findings. He has also made systematic studies on snow “metamorphose” processes in the Antarctic ice sheet. He is a graduate of Lanzhou University.
Dr. Ross is a legal expert at WilmerHale, focusing on mergers and acquisitions, foreign investment, financial services, project finance, energy and environmental law matters and capital markets. He has area expertise on China’s regulations, regulatory compliance and audit protocols, and he has advised companies in many industries on strategic expansion, environmental regulatory compliance, audit protocols, and trade investigation and dispute resolution in China. He received his juris doctor from Harvard Law School and both his master’s and doctorate in political science from the University of Michigan.
Dr. Saich is the director of the Ash Center for Domestic Governance and Innovation and Daewoo Professor of International Affairs at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. Saich first visited China as a student in 1976 and continues to visit each year. Currently, he is a guest professor at the School of Public Policy and Management at Tsinghua University, China. He also advises a wide range of government, private and nonprofit organizations on work in China and elsewhere in Asia. Saich is a trustee member of AMC Entertainment Inc., the China Medical Board and International Bridges to Justice. He is also the U.S. secretary-general of the China United States Strategic Philanthropy. He sits on the executive committees of the John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies and the Asia Center, both at Harvard University.
Mr. Shong is director of International Data Group, Inc. (IDG), China’s first technology venture capital firm, which invested in some of China’s most successful internet companies such as Baidu, Tencent and Sohu. He served as the chairman of IDG’s Board of Directors from 2005 to 2012. Mr. Shong has also launched and published more than 40 magazines in China and Vietnam, including the Chinese editions of Cosmopolitan, Harper’s Bazaar, National Geographic, Men’s Health and Robb Report. He graduated from Hunan University with a Bachelor of Arts in English, which was followed by a Master of Science from Boston University’s College of Communications, and completed Harvard Business School’s Advanced Management Program in 1996.
Dr. Sun is a professor in the Institute of International Studies at Tsinghua University. He has also taught at Fudan University, the East Asian Institute of Columbia University and the Ramapo College of New Jersey. Sun Zhe is the author or editor of more than ten books on American government and US-China relations. He has been an adjunct research fellow at the Center for the Studies of the Cross-Strait Relations, a board member of the US-China Peoples’ Friendship Association, a Member of academic Advisory Committee of the East Asia Institute, Shanghai, and an adjunct professor of the PLA Foreign Language University. He also serves as a consultant to several government departments. He is a graduate of Fudan University and obtained a Ph.D. in Political Science from Columbia University.
Professor Xu is a professor and doctoral advisor at Shanghai University. He previously served as mayor of Shanghai from 1995 to 2001, and he was integral to Shanghai’s transformation into a hub of global commerce, investment and culture. He was a vice chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference from 2003 to 2008, and a member of the 15th and 16th CPC Central Committees.
Ms. Yang is the host of the TV show Yang Lan One-on-One, which delves deeply into the history and past experiences of notable figures in politics, business and culture. She was a representative for Beijing’s bid for the 2008 Olympic Games, host of the Closing Ceremonies for the 2008 Beijing Olympics, goodwill ambassador for the 2010 Shanghai Expo and co-chair of the Lincoln Center China Advisory Council. Before hosting her own program, she was the chairwoman of Sun TV, the first Chinese historical and cultural channel on the mainland. She received her B.A. in English Language and Literature from Beijing Foreign Studies University.
Dr. Zha currently serves as a professor of international political economy at the School of International Studies at Peking University. Previously, he served as associate professor of international relations and chair of the Department of International Political Economy in the School of International Studies, Renmin University. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Hawaii and has held teaching and research positions in Japan, the United States, Hong Kong and Singapore. Zha specializes in studying non-traditional security issues that China is facing, including food, international rivers and public health. He is editor of multiple journals, and has published dozens of cited articles.
Mr. Zhao is the dean of The School of Journalism and Communication at Renmin University of China, a position he assumed after stepping down as Information Office director of the State Council of China. He has previously served as a member of the Sixteenth Central Committee, Deputy Director of the State Council’s Information Office, head of the CPC Central Overseas Information Office, and Vice Mayor of the Shanghai municipal government. He studied in the Department of Modern Physics at the Chinese University of Science and Technology.
Ambassador Zhong is the current Chinese Government Special Representative on African Affairs. He was the assistant secretary of the Chinese Embassy in the U.K. from 1987 to 1991. From 1991 to 1993, Zhong was First Secretary of the Chinese delegation to the Sino-British Joint Liaison Group that prepared the 1997 Hong Kong handover. From 1991 to 2001, he was the general director at the Department of Consular Affairs in Beijing. He was also a negotiator for the United States’ reparations for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s bombing of China’s embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1999. From 2002 to 2007, he was the Chinese consul general in Los Angeles. Zhong received his undergraduate diploma from Beijing Foreign University and obtained his master’s in diplomacy from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.